Thursday, December 13, 2012

Just A moment.

HAY Mary Christmas everyone I was wondering if everybody  could just take a moment and say what there up to for the holidays. :)

Saturday, December 8, 2012

ANOTHER research paper. :)

 Yet another, and yes more boring, paper on economics. :)

Research Paper
Jordan Reed
   In today’s political and economic debates, the subject of tax cuts versus government spending is an extremely volatile issue. It is a polarizing agent in the very definition of where political parties stand on method of governance, and not just in America but in many OECD nations as well. Because it is such a representative issue, both sides of the spectrum persist that their economic formula is superior to the others. This mutual persistence makes it often difficult to get a clear concise picture on the better market ideology. Now, due to recent events in the political sphere, the viability and efficacy of tax cuts has been seriously questioned and in some cases discarded entirely. These events have led me to do my research paper upon whether taxes have a negative effect on the economy, and if tax cuts have a revitalizing influence or not.
  To begin, it would be good to quantify just what these two sides represent exactly. There are numerous sects peppered throughout the spectrum, but, in order to streamline the argument, we can recognize two main factions: Keynesian and Chicago School. Each represents a foundation in their respective thought processes. Keynesian economic theory was a theory that arose around the early 20th century. It was formed by John Maynard Keynes, and it focused on the idea that aggregate demand dominates the prosperity and productivity of an economy. The corollary to this statement is that the government has the responsibility of spending to increase the overall demand of an economy in times of recession.  In opposition to this theory, the Chicago School of Economics purported that the free-market can best distribute resources, and government interference should be as small as possible. Because of this emphasis on less interference, the use of tax cuts became a common pillar of the theory. This focuses primarily on the supply of an economic model, thereby earning this theory the moniker supply-side economics. Now, the trouble comes when these systems are compared. Each situation in which one of these theories was implemented had different variables in the market, different macroeconomic situations, and varying degrees by which the theories were implemented. These influences make large-scale dissection of these policies and their effects difficult, but it is not impossible. At certain times, there have been administrations completely behind a certain economic model, and the administration’s policies included the implementation of many of the factors contained in a specific school of economic thought. By isolating certain choices of policy during this period of implementation and the subsequent results in a cause-and-effect relationship, we can draw conclusions on the overall impact of said policies.
  First, we will observe the effects of implemented Keynesian policies in the Roosevelt administration of 1933-1945. The blame for the depression had fallen heavily upon the Republican Old Order, and this resulted in the rare occurrence when both the legislative and Executive branches of government were ousted. The new economic outlook of this administration was dominated by the New Deal, which relied heavily on the interventionist principles of Keynes’s ideas. Shown in Fig. 1 (Romer 1992:757-784), the national GDP had plummeted through 1929-1932, and, even though the descent had slowed by 1933, the election of the new administration was almost inevitable. The overwhelming election of Roosevelt gave him a definite “mandate of the people” to enact drastic change. This change included such acts as CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps), PWA (Public Works Administration), CWA (Civil Works Administration, and WPA (Works Progress Administration).Using government wages, these programs were used to employ large segments of the jobless population.  In Keynesian principle, the government spent revenue to employ citizens in works, and these public sector employees would increase the aggregate demand in the economy through the public works system. This policy of government mass-employment is lauded by Keynes himself in a letter to President Roosevelt: “public authority must be called in aid to create additional current incomes through the expenditure of borrowed or printed money. (Keynes,1933:2) Fig.2 (Romer 1992:757-784) shows just how many jobs these policies pushed the government to employ. Further examples of Interventionist precedent are scattered throughout this administraton’s terms and policies, but it would not serve to expand our study into these at this time.
  Before weighing and discussing these findings, I would also present an opposing event that illustrates a similar circumstance but has a radically different solution. The election of 1980 serves as a pivotal turning point in the Kenyesian/Chicago School(or neo-classical as it had become called) contention. In veiw of context, the Kenyesian economic structure had become so entrenched that President Nixon was quoted as saying, “We are all Keynesians now” But, in the 1970s there came a period of stagflation, where inflation skyrocketed, growth stagnated, and unemployment remained at a heightened level. This was detrimental to the Kenysian economists, because their policies were so closely tied to the incumbent party. When the stagflation continued, the people overthrew the current administration in the election of 1980, and supply-side economists became the new leading theorists.  One of the keystone programs of the incoming regime was the institution of a supply-side economic model, and a pillar of this model was a massive tax cut to all income brackets. This tax cut was realized in the Economic Recovery Tax Rate of 1981 that entailed a phased-in 23% cut in individual tax rates over 3 years, with the top rate dropped from 70% to 50%. The Reagan administration and Chicago School theorists claimed that the tax cuts would provide growth in the tax base while simeoultaneously enriching the populace. Did it accomplish these things? Were these tax cuts successful in their stated purpose? Statistics from the period show that GDP grew at an annual percentage rate of 3.1 from 1980-1988, real family median income rose 0.8% annualy, and unemployment annualy fell by 0.3%. Even more telling is the fact that each quintile of living’s real income was raised by at least 5%. (Moore) Looking at these statistics, it would seem reasonable to at least make a superficial claim that tax cuts do indeed have a postive effect on the economy. The problem with this line of thinking is it doesn’t lay rest the basic question of whether tax cuts or government spending are more effective. After all, these two methodologies of governance are mutually exclusive. One represents government intervention during recession while the other focuses on minimal government interferance.
  To solve the problems above, we must examine the factors and evidence in each case, and define what would constitute a “successful” policy. For my paper, I am constituting a successful policy as one that spurs the economy to greater GDP than it would have experianced otherwise .
    First, we examine the New Deal example. Did the Keynsian method work? Upon first glance the evidence seems convincing. The GDP skyrocketed from 58 billion in 1933 to nearly 130 billion in 1941. This is one area where we must understand the intricacies of the historical context. Part of that enormous increase in GDP can be partly attributed to the energizing effect of America’s entrance into World  War 2. For this reason, it would be more informative to study the economic evidence of pre-WW2. With this in mind we can now see that the GDP jumped to approximately 90 billion in 1938. This 32 billion increase over five years is spectacular in any circumstance, but the claim that the rapid growth was caused by the fiscal  policies of FDR has been questioned in recent studies. Economist Christina Roma put forth a study that the government spending of the New Deal had less of an effect on the growth of GDP. She proves this through the use of an algorithm that incorporates the recessions and revoverys of previous instances. The simulation allows one to see approximately what the GDP growth would have been without the fiscal policy of 1933. (see fig. 3). (Romer) By looking at this chart that the Keynsian policies employed had nearly no effect on the growth. In the limited scope of this example, we can derive that a policy of government spending to increase demand is flawed, but it should be repeated that the diverse variables comprising the different markets must be taken into account in any conclusion.
  Of course, it is does nothing to quell a controversy if one policy is proven flawed but the other is not tested for its own authenticity. We now study the Reagan period of economic policy, and the Chicago School methodology brought with it. Applying the same litmus test we used on the New Deal policies, did Reagan’s tax cuts spur growth? We see in figure 4 that the growth during the Reagan administration was the second largest post WW2. In addition, A broad view showed that the growth came after two consequtive falls in growth. More than that, it could be implied that the economic stagflation would not have recovered without some major change, and that change was this change in economic policy.
  Viewing all the presented evidenc e, a few conclusions can be drawn from them. First, in the examples listed we see the weakness of Keynsian policies. It should be remembered that though they didn’t have an effect in these instances, but there are numerous studies that present further evidence on the different facets of the economy. What is proven in this paper is that the Keynsian ideology does not particularly contribute to the overall growth of GDP.
  Another conclusion that could be drawn is that, while interventionistism does not work, tax cuts have a pro-growth effect on the overall  economy. Because the measurement of success being gauged was GDP, that was the targeted statistic, but there are numerous other statistics, unemployment and real family income just for starters, that show a favorable change due to tax cuts and Chicago School policies.
  The final conclusion is that, while these issues have become a defining point of alliegiance in politics of the modern day , tax cuts and government spending are in themselves not complete economic policies. Just as there are numerous variables and nuances in a market, there is an equal amount of complexity in any economic plan. Tax cuts versus government spending really illustrates the difference in the way of approaching an economic  plan to solve a problem.

Works Cited

Keynes, John. "AN OPEN LETTER TO PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT." 16 December 1933.
Moore, William A. Niskanen and Stephen. "Supply-Side Tax Cuts and the Truth about the Reagan Economic Record." 22 October 1996. Cato Institute. Web. 25 November 2012.
Romer, Christina D. "What Ended the Great Depression?" The Journal of Economic History 52.4 (1992): 757-784. Web. 25 November 2012. <>.

Figure 1
Figure 2Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Saturday, November 24, 2012

Just the kind of research paper you would expect from the Gryphon..

Hey All Bloggers!

This is Gryphon here. I hope everyone has enjoyed their Thanksgiving and respective time being thankful and stuff. I know I most certainly have. As most of you know, my college life is consuming most of my time, but I decided that this assignment could serve the dual purpose of being a blog post and a research paper on corporate taxes.( With a title like that, I realize no one will actually read the post. Don't worry about it. It just makes me feel good to post something. :D )

p.s: remember the Prof gave me some really strange parameters. So remember most of the stuff is mine, but there are places where I was forced to insert the "required content". See if you can guess which part wasn't mine. :P

                         Corporate Taxes: A Study That Shows Sometimes Less Really Is More

   Imagine a college student. He had worked exhaustively for the past four years in order to graduate. The courses and challenges of college had been difficult, but the individual endeavored onward, investing immense amounts of time and money into the final goal of achieving a degree. Finally, the student, passing hurdle after hurdle, graduates. The person then sets to searching for a job which will not only pay the bills but also employ the degree he laboriously earned, but opportunities dry up and any openings seem to disappear quickly. As the unemployed graduate grows more desperate, he finally finds a low-level job outside his field, but it at least pays for his expenses.  Now as his college loans start accumulating interest, the bewildered student wonders just where the good jobs he had been preparing for went to.
   This is just an example of a common problem pervasive throughout America today. The economy and job market have stagnated to the point where one of every two college graduates are unemployed “Chew”. Debt continues to grow upwards while the job market shrinks, and businesses do not have the means to continue steady expansion. This weak economy is the result of the economic recession, and, while there are many factors and variables involved in the study of the recession economy, a facet particularly pertinent to the business community and job seekers is the issue of corporate taxes. While the effect of taxation is itself a large complex issue, we can gain a greater understanding of the whole by studying one of the parts. The part that I will focus on is the negative effect of the current USA corporate tax rate on firms and corporations, and why it should be lowered.
  First, before we analyze this toll, it would be profitable to define exactly what I mean by corporate taxes. Corporate taxes are “A levy placed on the profit of a firm, with different rates used for different levels of profits. Corporate taxes are taxes against profits earned by businesses during a given taxable period; “( (Investopedia)”) In approximation, it is a tax placed on the earnings of businesses. By knowing what exactly corporate taxes are, we can now properly weigh it’s effects, and why it should be lowered.
  Now, in a time when the deficit is at an all time high, people having less money to spend, and jobs scarce, many people might wonder at the logic of lowering the tax rate for businesses, but the fact is this is the right time to cut the rate. As of 2012, the United States of America achieved an effective  corporate tax rate of 34.6%,the highest rate in the G7 (the economic planning council) and the  the fourth highest rate in the world. While other industrialized nations have intitated corporate tax cuts for their countries, America continues to have a rate double that of the national average and well above that of other industrialized nations. (Institute)  This has several effects on businesses. Most important is that it destroys the competitive viability of America.  Firms and corporations with the means naturally seek lower tax havens, taking their jobs with them.The Examiner magazine said this, “In an expose on March 27th by CBS's 60 Minutes, hundreds of companies, and over $1.1 trillion dollars, are now being kept overseas providing nothing to the US economy due to stringent tax laws and regulations which make it difficult to invest, create new jobs, and find profitability if incorporated in America.” (Kenneth Schortgen Jr)
  Likewise, the jobs that could be given to American families should be reason enough for alleviating the tax burden. Yet, there are those that purport that these statistics are false or misleading.  Democracy in America, a popular political blog, has stated “Members of the business community, for their part, have long maintained that America's corporate rate, nominally the highest in the world, should be lowered. But that 35 percent rate is more theory than practice. Studies indicate that after tax breaks, the effective corporate tax rate is in fact closer to 25 percent, and one analysis found that nearly 300 major companies paid an average rate of just 18.5 percent between 2008 and 2010.” (R.M.) When reading this, it is important to note that it is true that some of these corporations do pay less than the effective rate, but there is a fallacy apparent in the logic. The article doesn’t go deep enough into the problem. Where did the companies get these tax breaks? They received them by relocating and off-shoring to areas with a more profitable tax rate, which the corporations had to do to avoid the excessive corporate tax in the first place. An example of this would be the tech giant Apple, who built factories in Ireland, routs internet traffic through Luxembourg, and then banks the profits in the Netherlands. All these operations create jobs for these nations, and the reason for this overly complicated trek is that each of these countries has tax laws vastly lower than America’s. In addition, while a select few firms can offshore, other companies cannot afford these loopholes, and the largest percent of taxes fall upon them hardest. (Prante) It is much like the family business or local firm that provides an infrastructure for an area. These small based businesses simply do not have the contacts or resources to relocate to these tax havens, and they must then compete with businesses that have. This presents the dual problems of a foreign based corporate system and also an imbalanced domestic market. An easy solution to both these problems is to lower the tax rate to a value where it is more attractive and profitable to keep their operations in the US. It would
  Similarly, a common charge brought up against the idea of reducing the rate is that the government cannot afford to lose the revenue. These detractors claim that tax cuts do not actually spur on growth, and thereby the government would lose a source of income for no reason. The problem in this is those opposed to the tax cuts make two incorrect assumptions. One, tax cuts do in fact spurs growth. There are numerous historical examples of this very thing occurring. In 1981, the USA had an unemployment rate of 7.5% and corporate tax rate of 46%. After the corporate tax was cut down to 35% by the Reagan Administration, the national unemployment rate fell to 5.0%. These statistics show an enormous growth in employment. Knowing that tax cuts of this kind can spur growth actually solves the second misconception. With the increased growth spurred by the tax cuts, government would actually bring in more income than at higher rates, because it would be getting slightly less from an economic base that is constantly growing, resulting in more income overall. This idea is illustrated handily by an economic model called the Laffer Curve. Created by the economic advisor Arthur Laffer, the Laffer Curve shows a relationship between tax rate and tax revenue. According to the Cato institute, “The Laffer curve illustrates the idea that above a certain tax rate, cuts to the rate cause the tax base to expand sufficiently for revenues to increase. The U.S. corporate tax rate is above that rate, and thus in a strong Laffer zone.” (Edwards)  The Laffer Curve is also handily shown true in real world examples. In 1985, Ireland had a corporate tax rate of 50%, but their overall corporate tax revenue was only 1% of their Gross Domestic Product. Over the next nineteen years the Irish government underwent a series of reforms that lowered the rate down to 12%, and coincidentally the corporate revenue skyrocketed to 3.6% .This is an increase of roughly 300%.  What we see in these examples is basically the ideal Laffer Curve effect. Although, with this diagram in mind, it is important to note that not all tax cuts have this dramatic of an effect. In order to be most effective, corporate tax reductions must be employed in proper areas and are only one piece of an economic plan. But, as these examples and models show, the use of tax cuts is a powerful positive economic stimulus.
   With all these facts, statistics, and arguments, it all boils down to one simple question. What does it matter? Perhaps economics and politics do have some meaning, but is it truly worth wasting time thinking about it? The answer is yes. We could ask that same question to our College graduate locked in a spiral of debt. Perhaps one of the companies that were forced to offshore might have had a job for him. Maybe he could have found employment with a local business, except that businesses are not hiring because they have to deal with an unfair tax system and ambiguous competition. If you could ask this individual or countless other unemployed people, I think they would tell you anything affecting business is of the utmost importance to them.
  On the other hand, one could even expand the observation further. What about the family and relationships of this graduated individual? The only job he can find is one that only just fulfills his needs. It definitely doesn’t leave any left over to stop his college debt from accumulating interest. The stress of his situation taints many varied areas of his life, from his self-image to his relationships. He would feel stuck in this cycle. Alternatively, it might be imagined that the graduate could move to get one of the few jobs out there. While this scenario is much better than being unemployed, it also strains any relationships he might have had, and it removes any developed structure for the newly employed to lean upon. These symptoms of extended unemployment and desperate employment cause not only economic disturbance but also psychological tension.
   Understanding all the evidence presented hitherto, one can see the damage done by the inefficient and detrimental corporate tax system. Jobs, profits, revenues, economic security, and growth, all these items are endangered for everyone by an economic policy that discourages internal and external competition. Hopefully, the American policy will soon swing to support a stronger pro-business stance, because it would be a senseless shame if the American people continued under the misconception that corporate tax cuts are the problem, when in fact they are part of the solution.

 Works Cited
Chew, Kristina. 1 in 2 College Graduates Unemployed or Underemployed. Ed. inc. 22 April 2012. Web. 23 November 2012.
Edwards, Chris. Coporate tax laffer curve. November 2007. Cato Institute. Web. 23 November 2012.
Institute, Cato. New Estimates of Effective Corporate tax Rates on Business Investment. na February 2011. Cato Institute. Web. 23 November 2012.
Investopedia. Corporate Tax. n.a. ValueClick, Inc. Web. 23 November 2012.
Kenneth Schortgen Jr. US corporate tax rates the primary cause for companies moving overseas. 11 March 2011. Clarity Digital Group LLC d/b/a Web. 23 November 2012.
Prante, Drs. Robert Carroll and Gerald Ernst & Young LLP. Long-run macroeconomic impact of increasing tax rates on high income taxpayers in 2013. na July 2012. Ernst & Young. Web. 23 November 2012.
R.M. The trouble with tax reform. 4 Febuary 2011. The Economist. Web. 23 November 2012.

Sunday, October 28, 2012


Well Guys I'm back sorry I did post more about the film here's one last pic um yes that I'm having trouble getting off my phone...... for some that is just sadly fitting. well I'll try and put it up late :)
Thank you everyone who sent me things from the Gamenight I was so much fun have a little peace of home to open everyday. Ok I have a crazy story out the crazy glue I hadn't used it much yet  becous it was so had to get it to come out so in the middle of shooting the ball seen when a girl from the wardrobe department comes up and asks if I have any glue well I happen to have the crazy glue in my pocket so tell her I do.... and being the nice guys I am asked if she needed any help well It turns out she was gluing the lead girls neckless to gether the one they needed to shoot with in like 20 minuets. So we glued to together held it in place and pealed our fingers off it with time to spare. now when I was trying to get the glue to come out I had to cut the tip off to get it to come out fast enuff but when we finished the lid went back on  smoothly and covered the hole fine so I wasn't wored about it well later when I tried to get the lid off well I heard a little crack well deciding to deal with it later I put it back in to my pocket mistake one and left my hand in the pocket mistake two and then for some reason something in my mind said why don't you take your hand out of there and well lets just say it was reluctant to leave the glues embrace but I got it out after a little bit and It could have BEEN WAY wores well I'll look for word to seeing you all in person farewell for now

                                                                                                                     Rennuke Atrowis 

Thursday, October 4, 2012


OK guys thay told me I can tell you for the last main roil they got JRD
you've probobly sean him....... In indana jones..... of Lord of the Rings ....... or lots of other things.

So thought I tell you all!

Thursday, September 13, 2012


Well this is from a bit back but it more or less somes up our Day of rest

Well the one guy got in the way but it WAS a pic of us spralled all over the ground "mostly sleeping "
Most of  the people in pic are from the costoum department. From the left is Andrew who whair's SWAT boots and tactical pants 24/6 this was sunday so he's in cargows and snercers  the guy bloking the frame is Levi  he is Always in cosutm usaly like what he's in here but sometimes he gose Hilender. "-"
Moving on...
On the far right is Hope I'm not sure how she got here shes mostly normal well ecsept for .....and then there's...... well there's a Big difrents betwen mostly normal and all normal .
 I'm afraid I can't make out whos who in the bloob of people behind Levi but that gives you the Idea
Yuo can tlel I'm whgintg tihs late at nhgit :) well I'll have more for you guys later if anyone wants to know something spasific about the progect feal free to ask.
Ps. it would be nise if some one from back home posted some thing so I could see whats going on back there .

Saturday, September 8, 2012


Not eveything on the set is all fun and games luckaly the police in this pic weren't after us were arn't sure who thay were after but after we called the random Camaro convertable on the side of the rode with two lisence plates that had difrent numbers. The police showed up and handcufed the guy who sphowed up and was trying to tow it away. thats when we lest :)

Sunday, September 2, 2012


Tomarow is the big day...... filming will go for 9 weeks I'll just post one pic to night but I hope to have more for you guys tomarow.
This is us texturizing foam with a  wier brush later it will  be panted later to make it look like wood.

Saturday, September 1, 2012

LIVE from the set

Hay ever one! day after tomarow we start shooting  so things are geting hyped up around here I'm going to try and post some thing ever day. I was going to post a pic but I for got my cable sooooooo...... I'll haft to do that to marow.

Saturday, August 11, 2012

Another one of my quick questions.

Has anyone been fallowing the Olympics ?
And if so is there a certen event that interests you?  

Wednesday, August 8, 2012

please be patient

please stay tuned as I am in no position to fix the comments at this time. I will look into this issue as soon as I can get to my computer. I am aware of the situation.

-Twilight Shadow
Sent from my droid razr

Saturday, July 14, 2012

A Legacy

   Here we are again. I have woefully left my blogging duties in the dustbin and undoubtedly caused immense sorrow amongst the masses. What’s makes my negligence of networking even more hideously heinous is that I was called out last post by one of my loyal readers to write about one of our heroes of the faith. So after putting off my procrastination and dawning some diligence, I have chosen to write on a character that is the favorite of one of my mentors, and one which I find quite a bit of inspiration in myself. So for a moment or two of your time, I would like to tell you about John Calvin.

                                                The Beginning of the Reformer
          John Calvin is seen as quite a controversial figure in modern society. Many saved and unsaved alike, view him with derision. To those critics who are unsaved, Calvin is seen as the product of the Christian faith when it is given too much influence in any society; to those critics who are born again, they see Calvin as exchanging the loving nature of God for an evil caricature of judgment and cruelty. I would suggest to you that these beliefs are born from misunderstanding of Calvin’s vaguer teachings, modern society’s focus on one controversial issue, and a loss of perspective in view of Calvin’s life. Calvin was not a devil as many paint him to be, but a saint with weaknesses (like ours) and tremendous strengths, both of which were used (or struggled with) as he strived to teach a doctrine that would grow to be the most influential of all Protestant faiths.
       The man we know as John Calvin (or in his native tongue: Jean Cauvin) was born July 10, 1509, about 60 miles north of Paris. John’s father, Gerard, a stern and rather distant man, was an important lawyer with extensive ties with the local Bishop, and these connections made it easy for him to put his twelve year-old son into private religious studies which he quickly succeeded in. Gerard envisioned an influential church position for his son. To that end, he sent John to the University of Paris to study the arts, after which a nine-year theological doctorate was planned. All these plans suddenly caved in as the obstinate Gerard had a falling out with the local church. The angry father decided that his son would instead become a lawyer as he was, and John, ever the dutiful son, accepted. The sharp mind of Calvin readily showed its masterful ability in his legal studies, although Calvin showed that he preferred the studies of the humanities to the intricacy of law. This preference took the fore after John’s father died in 1531, and Calvin went back to studying at Paris.
     It was at this time that John Calvin had his first contact with the Protestant Church that he would have so much effect on in the future. It is not known the exact time or circumstances when he became saved. Calvin himself writes: “on a sudden the full knowledge of the truth, like a bright light disclosed to me the abyss of errors in which I was weltering, the sin and shame with which I was defiled...God himself produced the change. He instantly subdued my heart to obedience.” #
     Regardless of the circumstances surrounding it, Calvin’s conversion caused him to set aside many of his secular studies and devote a large amounts of his time to studying the word of God. For two years Calvin studied and met with like-minded Protestants, and these years saw Calvin rise as the leader of his small Parisian group using both his mind and his faith to assist other believers in their walk. Unfortunately, this peaceful period could not last. France’s King, Francis I, had been reasonably tolerant up to this point, but when it became apparent that he risked raising the ire of the greatly more numerous Catholic population King Francis increased pressure on the active Christian minority. Calvin and his group were forced into hiding in the southern French city of Angouleme for nearly a year, until Calvin made the fateful decision to give up the benefices he had been given while studying in his youth, thereby severing his final tie with the Catholic Church. Wanting to finally find somewhere where he could continue his studies and worship in safety, the young scholar sojourned to Basel, Switzerland, the land where God would use him to his fullest capacity and his life work would be consummated.
    Now, before I continue with Calvin’s story, I want to give a little background to the region where he found himself. The Reformation had already touched the Swiss confederacy. In fact, it had pulled the Cantons (Confederate Swiss States) into a rare confrontation resulting in an uneasy peace which chafed both sides. Catholics sought to subjugate the heretics in the western French speaking Cantons (also known as the “Forest Cantons”), and Protestants sought to retain and (although illegal) spread what they had. Although the Forest Cantons wanted to further proliferate their beliefs, the movement for them became less of a personal call than a national one. The National Protestants cared little for doctrinal issues. They only wanted the removal of the Catholic Church from their land, removal of the financial burden, removal of the corrupt popes, and removal of domineering authority. Undoubtedly, there were true Christian reformers in the Swiss church, but the movement itself had lost the religious, personal, and holy aim in which it had started. It was in this place that the peace-seeking Calvin sought a refuge, but found instead a ministry.
From 1534-1536, One would think that Calvin had found his refuge. In Basel he was free to study endlessly, proclaim his faith, and most importantly continue his plea to the French King for his brethren in the faith under persecution. This plea took the form of his famous work Institutes of the Christian Religion. It has been said that this comprehensive manuscript explaining Protestant Doctrine was what made Protestantism intellectually acclaimed and moved it from being viewed as a primarily peasant philosophy. Although this greatly underrated the brilliant works of Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli, and others, one can plainly observe why one would make such a statement by the excellence that Calvin used in creating this masterpiece that explains so logically the Protestants faith and workings. Calvin would modify, clarify, and expand his workings throughout his entire life.
         As we see that Calvin has finally obtained what he has always wanted, we may ask ourselves what more is there to say. Should not the story end like this? The man of God in worship, at peace, who worked from the background to leave a legacy for his people, Thank the Lord that was not the case. Many historians ask “what if” scenarios, and at this time I will indulge in one of my own. What if Calvin had not taken one last evangelistic journey to Italy to help an old friend? If this had been so Calvin would never have been forced to take an alternate route home (for his permanent retirement) due to Catholic troops moving in the Alpine passes. If this had been so Calvin would never have stayed a day in Geneva and found God’s calling for him there. In the end, we can only praise the Lord that it did happen, because in Geneva God wrought a special work through Calvin.

                            Calvin’s First Stay in Geneva: Foundation Laying
        Geneva, the center of the Protestant movement in Switzerland, was in a phrase: “one of the most licentious and permissive city in Germany”. It was the perfect example of what was happening to the National Protestants. Having lost their moral and holy mission, they were forced to rely on their political one, and it even caused some to stray back to the Roman Catholic fold. Even with all this going on in the city, it was not completely lost. William Farel, known as a fiery fanatical evangelist, had decried this state of affairs and formed a small church of believers around him. Although an exceedingly skilled orator and missionary, Farel lacked the organizational ability and calling to properly teach this church. His mission gifts were evangelical non pastoral. “He was a Paul that planted, but he prayed for an Apollo to water.”# His prayers were answered when he heard that the young Scholar theologian that had penned the Institutes (by now circulated throughout Europe) was passing through the town. Calvin always considered himself unfit for public service, and pleaded that he was tired, naturally timid, inexperienced, and in need of further study, not worthy of any such post. Farel continued to insist that Calvin would stay and teach the flock in Geneva. Finally, on the eve of Calvin’s departure, Farel made an oath that “God would surely curse your peace if ye held back from giving help at a time of such great need.” The God-fearing heart of Calvin was terrified of this prospect, and due to this he decided (or rather was forced) to accept the daunting proposition of organizing and teaching Geneva’s protestant church. Calvin said this, “I felt as if God from Heaven had laid his mighty hand upon me to stop me in my course...And I was so terror stricken that I did not continue my journey.” I would like to point out at this time that these events debunk the theory that Calvin was seeking to create some sort of religious fiefdom for himself. Calvin did not want to be any sort of leader. His aim was to be scholar working in peace, but, as we will see throughout his life, when God required this sanctuary seeking theologian to do something Calvin did it. Calvin did it with complete zeal and conviction.
       A complete conviction that his God would see his efforts come to fruition is perhaps the hallmark of Calvin’s first stay in Geneva. The new minister sent through a radical reformation of the Genevan protestant church. Four levels of Church Hierarchy were created, although one should NOT confuse Geneva’s church organization with Roman Catholicism’ clerical orders. Calvin created a system where one who wished to be a minister be first taught in the Lord’s word, and then examined for faults that could damage his flock, and finally his congregation was to vote on his appointment to their pulpit. This differs in the extreme from the dictatorial tendencies of the Popes. But to return to the point, the four levels of Calvinistic hierarchy are Elders, (whose job it is to shepherd the different sections of the city and in extreme cases to deal with doctrinal issues and heresy) Pastors, (who had the responsibility of ministering the word God to the congregation , giving the sacraments, and teaching the catechisms to Children) Doctors, (Who were charged with the education of adults and children on the deeper meanings of the Word) and Deacons ( These were the organized charity services of the Church, devoted to helping the widows and orphans, and maintaining the alms houses. This was a particularly special work to John Calvin, and it was a true boast that there were no beggars in Geneva due to the work of this branch.). None of these ministers were considered to be higher in God’s view of man, but were simply those chosen for a certain job to use their God-given gifts. The most controversial reform was Calvin’s enforcement of a pure church. The idea that the sacraments should only be administered to the elect and that it should be denied to those who are out of their walk with the Lord.
      These overdo reforms began truly mending the church together and spread Christian influence across Geneva, but they created enemies for Farel and Calvin. The Catholics despite these reforms and continually heckled the Protestants at any chance. These changes also alienated some of the old families in the city who had, in the absence of Church leadership, accrued inordinate influence in both Catholic and Protestant circles. The loss of this influence had the old elites furious with Calvin, and they expressed this displeasure by creating enormous divides in the church with their immoral living and hypocrisy. When Calvin’s enemies heard about his move keep the immoral and unworthy from the Lord’s Supper, they attacked with all their power. This attack allowed them to secure the city council, and demand Calvin’s compliance in regards to the Sacraments. John Calvin, showing his steely dedication to God’s word that became the ethos of his life ,refused this blatant assault on the work being done in the church, and because of his refusal the Council exiled John Calvin and attempted to strip the city of his work.
                   Interlude: Preparation For Higher Work 1538-1541
      A now exiled Farel and Calvin sojourned across Switzerland. Farel continued east to Neuchatel, but Calvin was invited to his former abode by the resident minister of Strasbourg, Butzer. Once again at Strasbourg one might think that Calvin would settle into his wanted time of scholarly pursuits, but this was not to be. Butzer requested that Calvin would help organize the French refugees that were fleeing the King’s renewed persecution. Calvin once again protested, but this time he recognized his gift and an oath was not required.
It is a fact that Calvin’s dismissal was the fault of a jealous city council and a Catholic minority, but we see, during this time as a refugee pastor, Calvin working on the faults he suffered trouble with in Geneva. He refined his doctrine to be more closely aligned with the Word of God and established a form of congregational worship that is followed by countless churches today. Calvin also recognized his sometime stubborn nature could get in the way of his preaching, and he worked extremely hard to overcome it. Also, Calvin, while in Strasbourg, was married to a widow with two children. Although the Idelette Calvin never bore her husband anymore children and died only 9 years after being wed to John Calvin, she was loved extremely deeply by John. He never married again, and raised her children as his own.
       While this phase of Calvin’s life was going on, events were conspiring in Geneva to a climactic moment. With Calvin gone the Protestant lost their majority position as more and more of their members converted to Catholicism. The Council that threw out Calvin now had a more vibrant Catholic faction, a Protestant movement with no powerful leader, and a new faction that supported a signing away of religious independence to their neighbor Berne. This faction was known simply as articlists. In this state of disunity that reigned, the Catholic Church, beginning its movement known as the ‘counter-reformation’, sent its premier Cardinal and theologian, the brilliant Cardinal Sadoleto to sway the city of Geneva back to the Pope’s fold. Understandably so, the Protestants of the region were terrified of the Cardinal swaying to many people to Catholicism, and thereby gaining a majority vote in the Genevian city council. Due to this, Berne, a neighboring city, invited Calvin to send a rebuttal against the Cardinal’s printed manifesto which was having so much popularity. The reply by Calvin reiterated his view of grace, of and all-powerful, merciful, loving God, and on Church and state. This article written by Calvin was extremely successful, and gave breath back to the Christians in Geneva. It also made the people of Geneva realize what a mistake they had made in aiding the banishment of Calvin. The craved peace from the factionalism that was rife in the City-State’s government and Calvin was the best representation of social peace and religious peace they had. The Old Council that got rid of Calvin was taken out, and a new council was elected on the spot. Their first act was to invite their former minister back on his terms. Bearing promises of support and help the envoys were disappointed at Calvin’s absolute “NO”. For the third-time Calvin refused to do this thing he was being led too, but after having many of his friends advise him to accept this position and many hours of prayer he was once again set for the City of Geneva.
                                       The Protestant Jerusalem
       Now we begin to peer at the culmination of Calvin’s life, one might call it his crowning achievement. The return of Calvin to Geneva was an extremely different from his first visit. Before, Calvin came as young, inexperienced, scholar who was simply going home to find a place of rest where he could work in peace. Now, Calvin came as a mature (spiritually and physically), renowned theologian that was coming, with the consent of the city council, for the express mission of turning Geneva towards the Lord, and we have already seen the complete devotion John Calvin attributed to something when it became his sole focus.
At once upon his arrival in Geneva in September, 1541, Calvin set about to revise the rot that had spread in the religious organization of the community in such a way that the result would be a model Christian city. These efforts culminated into the Ordanonances Ecclesiatiques Which first back in place those things that the previous council had ruined, and added certain facets such as: The Venerable Compagnie des Pastuers, who were a rotating board of the pastors who would be in charge of discipline in most cases, and the banning of members of the church entering certain establishments such as Houses-of-ill-repute and other morally questionable business’. These rules were first sent to the City Council, who approved them, and then to the churches and congregations themselves, who approved them. Thus, the work began.
    The work had begun, but it was still an uphill battle for the Calvin and his followers (by now tagged ‘Calvinists’). Non-protestants set dogs upon Calvin as he walked to church, guns were fired under his bedroom window at night, and even threats to his and his family’s health were not uncommon, but this did not stop Calvin he held himself to whatever standard he asked of others. He continued in his role of organizing the churches and trying to promote new ones, he played a full part in the day-to-day running of the assemblies. Calvin also preached twice every Sunday and every other day in alternating succession. He took his place as one of the elders every Thursday meeting, and could be found in the Deacons offices helping organize the aiding of the poor. I would also point out that all these responsibilities were done despite his health which was in a word miserable. Digestive failure, severe migraines, acute gout, lung hemorrhages, and painful bladder stones all were catalogued in his list of ailments, none of which ever stopped him from fulfilling his duties to Men or God. When Calvin could not walk to Church he had his bed carried. When he could not give lectures because of the cold air he invited the attendees to his house. When he was asked to stop going so diligently and rest Calvin replied, “Would you have me to be found sleeping when my Lord and Savior comes?” None can fault Calvin in his diligence and dedication to the absolute sovereign of earth and Heaven.
       Unfortunately, the fault that the public too often latches on to is Calvin’s over-zealotry. This subject is unfortunately one where Calvin fails. The Michael Servetus affair is one of these sins that occurred. The point I want to make here is that Servetus was a Heretic, and Calvin’s specific job was to find Heretics in the church and hand them over to the city if they continued to threaten the church. Do I believe that it was sin to kill him? Yes, I do not minimize the sinfulness of the act. But I would point out that it was the City Council’s decision that killed him, not Calvin. I do not want to condone what was done in the slightest, but Calvin’s life should not be measured against this act. It was not as if he was did not display the love of Jesus in his life, but that in regards to the purity of the church he faltered in his fanaticism to protect the church against outside threats. Calvin was still constantly harassed by the Catholics and Humanists, yet he only took issue with them when they attacked the church. Those who would point out that these acts condemn the entire Genevan Protestants as morally less than the Catholic movement should take into consideration that when Calvin and his followers were banished during Calvin’s first stay, they left. When the Catholics simply started losing power, they allied themselves with the humanists and old families of Geneva to rebel against the government and the church. Another thing many people overlook is that the City Council, a government elected by the majority of the people, allowed minorities in the city as long as they did not threaten the unity of the church or the city (Which they did as shown in the fore stated Catholic rebellion), but the same cannot be said of Catholic cities that engaged in active persecution.
       It cannot be thought that Calvin was in any way a ruler or dictator of Geneva, as some of his critics would say. He was appointed by the city council and paid by them. He could at any time have been dismissed by them. He was a foreigner in Geneva, not even a naturalized citizen, until the very end of his life, and therefore not even able to claim the protection of the law which allowed his enemies to attack him without fear of legal repercussions. Any authority he had was moral authority, stemming from the numberless people he inspired with his selfless sacrifice for his Almighty Father.
                          Conclusion: An Enduring Legacy
      It is surprising that so few know about the influences that John Calvin had on history. His most immediate legacy was his work in Geneva, turning a center of immorality and licentiousness into a haven for Protestant refugees and missionary work. Due to their rebellion and loss influence among the people, the opposition to Calvin and Protestantism was greatly declined, and this led to a flowering of the Protestant faith. Geneva soon became known for its teachers and missionary work, both of whom were diligent in their duties. Young ministers came to drink from the fountain of knowledge that Calvin and others had created, and in turn these people eventually went back to their own churches spreading what they learned. Sinful businesses were isolated and punished. The poor were cared for in true Christian fashion. The church became a model for numberless others. All these things can be attributed to the tireless workings of John Calvin.
     But Calvin’s greatest influences came on a larger scale. Calvinism, as his teachings became called, completed what Lutheranism was unable to. Lutheranism had become perceived as a subversive influence in, many areas, a German movement, unformed, and too militant thanks to the Peasant Rebellion. Such a movement could not sprout in many areas. Calvinism solved these problems. Calvinism was not limited to one region, but spread through hundreds of missionaries work and unofficially by the teaching of visiting pupils. Through these ways Calvin’s teachings were spread to France, the Netherlands, Scotland, Poland, Italy, England (Where it heavily affected the creation of Anglicism), and even North America (New England Puritans were almost pure Calvinists and some of the first settlers of America). An additional strength of Calvinism was the solid doctrine recorded by Calvin in the Christian Institutes which eventually became widely considered as the epitome of intellectual commentary on the Bible. Intellectually, emotionally, and morally Calvinism was a boon to the Reformation, and Christianity, as a whole.
     John Calvin, A man used by God for a specific job Vilified by many, now and in his time, he didn’t want to have the responsibility he shouldered, but bear it he did. He was human as we are, and fallible as we are. The one thing that we cannot deny is that he loved our Lord, and slaved his whole body and actions to doing his will. From Geneva to New England, 1540 to 2012, John Calvin’s gifts to church everywhere are constantly shown even if they are neither acknowledged nor appreciated.

P.S: Wanted to post this for the rush of actually posting something ,. I promise to reveal a grammatically correct version later.